LLLT involves the transmission of coherent red and near-infrared light energy at wavelengths that are able to pass into and through the body up to depths of 40 mm. Laser light may influence even deeper tissues due to its known cascade effect. As the laser passes into and through the body it generates a wide range of effects on physiological mechanisms and processes at the molecular and cellular and tissue levels.
1. Walsh, L.J., et al. 2006. “Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT).” Chap. 13 in Oral Laser Application.Berlin: Quintessence.
2. Chung, H., et al. 2012. The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy. Ann Biomed Eng, 40(2):516-33.
Main outcomes of photostimulation: Electrons transported in the chain for —
Increased ATP production leads to enhanced activity of immune cells.
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production activates transcription factors that cause protein synthesis that triggers further effects downstream.
Changes to the electric potential of cells and sub-cellular components include disruption of Na-K pump in membrane of nerve cells.